Taimakon da Sayyidina Ali da ‘Ya’yansa Suka Ba Wa Khalifofin Annabi (SAW) Uku: Abubakar da Umar da Usman, Allah ya kara musu yarda

Makala da aka Kaddamar a taron karawa juna sani mai taken “Sanin Darajar Sahabban Manzon Allah (SAW) da bacin Akidun Shi’a” wanda Bn Baaz Islamic Foundation for Propagation and Councelling ya shirya a Alfurqan Chatitable Foundation, Alu Avenue, Nassarawa GRA, Kano, a ranekun Jumma’a zuwa Lahadi, 20-22 ga watan Jumadal Ula, 1435 (21-23 ga watan Maris, 2014)

Prof. Umar Muhammad Labdo

NorthWest University, Kano

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Gabatarwa

Godiya ta tabbata ga Allah Ubangijin talikai. Tsira da aminci su tabbata ga Annabin Rahama, da Alayensa da Sahabbansa da waxanda suka bi Sunnarsa.

Bayan haka, babu shakka taimakekeniya a kan aikin alheri sifar muminai ce kamar yadda Allah ya yi umarni da faxinsa, “Kuma ku taimaki juna a kan aikin qwarai da taqawa.” (Suratul Ma’ida:2)

Saboda haka, Sayyidina Ali da ‘ya’yansa, Hassan da Hussaini, Allah ya qara musu yarda, sun ba da taimako mai yawa ga khalifofin Annabi(SAW) guda uku na farko, watau Abubakar da Umar da Usman, wajen yaxa addinin Musulunci da tafiyar da al’amuran al’umma da jihadin kafirai. Tsammanin savanin haka munana zato ne ga waxannan manyan bayin Allah muminai, kuma vatanci ne ga mai tarbiyyar su, Annabi Muhammad(SAW), kamar yadda yake zagon qasa ne ga Musulunci.

Ingantaccen tarihi tatacce ya tabbatar da kyakkyawar alaqa da ta kasance tsakanin Ali da zuri’arsa da kuma khalifofi guda uku, da ma sauran Sahabbai baki xaya. Kuma wannan shi ne yake dacewa da ayoyin Alqur’ani da Hadisai ingantattu da maganganun magabat na-gari. Malamai sun tabbatar da cewa, a tarihin bil Adama kaf, ba’a tava samun wasu mutane da suka fi Sahabban Annabi da Alayensa haxin kai ba, da qaunar juna, da nesantar rarraba da fitina. Wannan ya sa suka amsa sunansu, Mafi Alherin Al’umma, kamar yadda Allah ya ambace su: “Kun kasance mafi alherin al’umma wadda aka fitar ga mutane.” (Suratu Ali Imrana: 110)

Sai dai duk da wannan shaida ta Alqur’ani da Hadisai da maganganun magabata, an samu wasu mutane masu mugunyar manufa waxanda suke qoqarin vata sunan waxan nan manyan bayin Allah da vata tarihinsu. Waxan nan mutane su ne ‘yan Shi’a.

‘Yan Shi’a suna sauwara Sahabban Annabi da iyalin gidansa, Ahalul Baiti, a matsayin mutane masu gaba da qiyayya da qeta da mugun nufi ga juna. Kuma dukkan wannan wai sanadinsa shi ne kwaxayin mulki da son abin duniya. Wannan yana nufin ke nan, magabatan al’umma, waxanda su ne abin koyin ta, sun gajiya. Babu shakka a cikin wannan sauwarawa ta ‘yan Shi’a akwai maqarqashiya ga addinin Musulunci. Don haka ya zama wajibi a bayyana wa mutane gaskiyar al’amura, ba tare da wata rufa-rufa ba. Danganta gaba da qiyayya ga Sahabbai da Ahalul Baiti qarya ce tsagwaronta, kuma maqiyan Musulunci ne suka kitsa ta da nufin rusa addinin daga tushensa.

Alaqar Sahabbai Da Ahalul Baiti Daga Mahangar ‘Yan Shi’a

‘Yan Shi’a suna qudure samuwar gaba da qiyayya, qeta da mugunta, mugun nufi da kausasawa a tsakanin Sahabban Annabi(SAW) da Alayensa, watau Ahalul Baiti. Wannan shi ne addinin ‘yan Shi’a wanda suke qudurewa a zukatansu, kuma suna ganin duk wanda bai yarda da haka ba to shi ba Musulmi ba ne. Domin tabbatar da wannan karkatacciyar aqida ta su, da sama mata gindin zama, malaman Shi’a suna qira qarerayi suna dangana su ga waxannan zavavvun bayin Allah, kuma suna tabbatar da qarerayin a cikin littafansu, kamar yadda suke tarbiyantar da mabiyansu a kan qudure su da yaxa su. Waxannan qarerayi sun haxa da:

Sahabbai Sun Qwacewa Ali Khilafa

Qarya ta farko da malaman Shi’a suka laqa wa Sahabbai da Ahalul Baiti ita ce wacce ta shafi khilafa, watau shugabancin Musulmi bayan rasuwar Manzon Allah(SAW). Suka ce khilafa haqqin Ali ce, Allah ne ya naxa shi da kansa, kuma ya umarci Annabi da ya bayyana wa Musulmi hakan. Kuma wai Annabi ya yi wasiyya, ya bayyana a fili cewa Ali ne zai gaje shi a shugabancin al’umma bayansa.[1] Amma, a cewarsu, sai manyan Sahabbai irin su Abubakar da Umar da Usman da Abdurrahman da Xalha da Zubair; da sauransu, suka haxa baki suka haramta wa Ali wannan haqqi nasa saboda hassada da qiyayya. Kuma da wannan ‘yan Shi’a suka yi wa Sahabbai kuxin goro, suka ce duka sun kafirta, sun yi ridda saboda sun qi zartar da wasiyyar Annabi(SAW).[2]

A ra’ayin ‘yan Shi’a, wannan shi ne dalili na farko da ya jawo gaba da qiyayya tsakanin Ahalul Baiti da Sahabbai saboda Sahabbai sun wulaqanta shugaban Ahalul Baiti, watau Sayyidina Ali, sun qasqanta shi, sun hana masa haqqinsa, kuma sun tilasta masa yin mubaya’a ga Abubakar da biyayya a gare shi.

Sahabbai Sun Wulaqanta Faxima

Qarya ta biyu da ‘yan Shi’a suka qaga wa Ahalul Baiti da Sahabbai don su nuna cewa gaba ta wanzu a tsakaninsu shi ne abinda suke faxi cewa wai Sahabbai, musamman Abubakar da Umar, sun wulaqanta Nana Faxima, sun ci zarafinta kuma sun zalunce ta. Suka ce Abubakar, a matsayinsa na shugaban Musulmi, ya hana ta gadon mahaifinta kuma wai Umar ya buge ta har ya karya mata qashin haqarqari, kuma ya sa ta yi varin cikin da take xauke da shi. Kuma wai duka wannan ta’annuti manyan Sahabbai suna gani ba wanda ya ce uffan, maimakon haka ma duka sun goyi baya. Kuma wai mijinta, Ali binu Abi Xalib, ya kasa yin komai a kan wannan wulaqanci da zalunci saboda an rinjaye shi, an raunana shi, kuma Sahabbai waxanda dama duka sun yi ridda, sun haxe bakinsu, babu mai goyon bayansa.

Umar Ya kwaci diyar Ali!

karya ta uku mai ban takaici kuma mai ban dariya a lokaci guda ita ce faxinsu cewa wai Sayyidina Umar a lokacin da yake khalifa ya qwaci xiyar Ali binu Abi Xalib, watau Ummu Kulthum xiyar Faxima kuma qanuwar Hussaini, ya aure ta da qarfi, ba tare da izini ko yardar ubanta ba.[3] Kalmar da suke amfani da ita wajen ba da labarin wannan almara ita ce “gasab”, watau fashi ko kuma qwace. A zamanin Jahiliyya “gasab” yana faruwa, watau fashin ‘ya’ya mata, inda za’a samu wani qaqqarfan namiji, amma mara mutunci, ya gamu da yarinya ta tafi xaukar ruwa a rafi, ko ya iske ta a gidansu, ya kama ta ya tafi da ita da qarfin tsiya. Idan ubanta jarumi ne, ko kuma yana da dangi masu taimaka masa, sai ya je a buga ya qwato ta. Idan kuwa ba haka ba, to sai ya haqura da auren “gasab”. Wai irin wannan suke nufin Umar ya aikata ga Ali!

Sahabbai Sun Yaqi Ali

Qarya ta huxu ita ce faxinsu cewa wai Sahabbai, a qarqashin shugabancin Innar Muminai Nana A’isha da Xalha da Zubair, sun yaqi Sayyidina Ali kuma sun goyi bayan Mu’awiya binu Abi Sufyan a rikicin da ya wanzu tsakaninsa da Ali. A kan wannan qarya ‘yan Shi’a suka gina gabarsu da Innar Muminai A’isha, suna kafirta ta, suna la’antar ta kuma suna jifan ta da aikata alfasha bisa qazafi, abinda Allah ya barrantar da ita daga gare shi.

Sahabbai Sun Kashe Hussaini

Qarya ta biyar da ‘yan Shi’a suka laqa wa Sahabbai ita ce cewa wai sun kashe Sayyidina Hussaini binu Ali(RA) a yayin da suka haxe baki suka mara wa abokin hamayyarsa, Yazid binu Mu’awiya, baya kuma suka yaqe shi a qarqashin tutar Yazid xin inda shi Hussaini ya yi shahada a Karbala. ‘Yan Shi’a suna yin amfani da mutuwar Hussaini a fagen fama wajen rura wutar qiyayya a zukatan mabiyansu, a yayin da suka mayar da ranar rasuwarsa ranar alhini da bukukuwa na shekara-shekara, kuma suka wajabta xaukar fansarsa a kan dukkan Ahalus Sunna.[4]

Maganganun ‘Yan Shi’a Na Karo da Juna

A taqaice waxannan qarerayi guda biyar da su ‘yan Shi’a ke kafa hujja a kan ra’ayinsu na dangantaka tsakanin Ahalul Baiti da Sahabbai. Amma waxannan qarerayi, maganganun ‘yan Shi’a su da kansu suna warware su. Da farko dai an san Ali binu Abi Xalib da jarunta da sadaukantaka da bardanta. Haka yake a cikin littafan ‘yan Shi’a da na Ahalus Sunna, ba bambanci. Kai ko a  Adabin Hausawa da waqen Hausa, an san Ali a matsayin jarumi mai tsananin tumbe, mai ban kashi a fagen fama, wanda ba ya jin tsoron ya buga da abokan gaba komai yawansu. Daga cikin kirarinsa a Adabin Hausa ana cewa: Aliyu garga mazan fama, gadangu qusar yaqi. Kas kafiri, qi kafiri, gaba da maqi sallah, almakashin maqiya Baban Zara. Aliyu haidara, Ali jan zaki, Aliyu jijiya ba nama ba. A littafan ‘yan Shi’a kuwa, suna dangana wa Ali ayyukan bardanta da sadaukantaka waxanda ko ifiritan aljanu ba sa iya kwatanta irin su.

To ya mutum jarumi kamar Ali za’a ci zarafin matarsa, uwar ‘ya’yansa, kuma xiyar Manzonsa, amma ya qyale?! Kuma ta yaya mai siffa irin wannan za’a qwaci xiyarsa, a aure ta a kan tilas ba da yardarsa ba?!

Dangane da batun khilafa kuwa, da cewa wai Allah ne da kansa ya naxa Ali kuma Annabi(SAW) ya yi wasiyya da haka, ‘yan Shi’a suna ruwaitowa a cikin littafansu cewa Ali(RA) ya qi khilafa a yayin da aka zo yi masa mubaya’a kuma ya guje ta. Sun ruwaito cewa, a lokacin da Sahabbai suka nemi Ali domin yi masa mubaya’a bayan kisan Usman, ya ce da su: “Ku qyale ni, ku nemi wanina. Ni in zama waziri a gare ku ya fiye min in zama sarki.”[5] Kuma har ila yau, sun ruwaito shi yana cewa, “Na rantse da Allah ban da kwaxayin khilafa kuma ban da sha’awar shugabanci, amma ku kuka kira ni zuwa gare ta, kuka tilasta ni a kan ta.”[6]

To idan Allah ne ya naxa Ali ya shugabanci Musulmi kuma yana sane Annabi(SAW) ya yi wasiyya da haka, ta ya zai guji khilafa, ya qi karvar ta sai bayan an tilasta masa?!

Wani abu kuma da yake qara tabbatar da tufka da warwara a maganganun ‘yan Shi’a dangane da alaqar Ali da sauran Sahabbai shi ne yadda littafansu suke tabbatar da rawar da manyan Sahabbai suka taka wajen aurensa da Faxima. Babban malamin ‘yan Shi’a mashahuri, Ali binu Isa Al’arbali, da qasaitaccen malaminsu mai yawan rubuce-rubuce, Muhammad Baqir Almajalisi, sun rubuta qissar auren Ali da Faxima, Allah ya qara musu yarda, a cikin littafansu. Abinda suka ambata a taqaice shi ne cewa Abubakar da Umar da Sa’ad binu Mu’az Ba’ansare, Allah ya qara musu yarda, su ne suka ba wa Ali shawara da ya nemi auren Faxima a wajen mahaifinta Annabi(SAW). Kuma da Ali ya yi musu uzuri da qarancin abin hannu, sun qarfafa masa guiwa kuma suka yi alqawarin taimaka masa. Waxannan malamai na Shi’a sun tabbatar da cewa, a lokacin da Annabi(SAW) ya amince ya aura wa Ali xiyatsa, Usman binu Affan ne ya biya sadakin auren kuma Abubakar ne ya sayi kayan xaki da aka kai amarya da su.[7]

Wannan qissa wacce manyan malaman Shi’a suka tabbatar da ita a cikin littafansu soyayya take nunawa da qauna tsakanin Ali da sauran Sahabbai amma ba qiyayya ba. Sai dai malaman Shi’a, musamman na wannan zamani, suna voye irin wannan qissa domin mugun nufi da qoqarin vata sunan Sahabban Annabi da Ahalul Baiti baki xaya. Kuma jahilcin mabiyansu yana taimaka musu wajen cimma wannan manufa.

Haqiqanin Alaqar Ahalul Baiti Da Sahabbai

Abinda Ahalus Sunna suka sani, kuma suke quduri da shi, shi ne cewa babu abinda yake tsakanin Ahalul Baiti da Sahabbai sai soyayya da qauna da ban girma. Kuma wannan quduri na Ahalus Sunna shi ne yake dacewa da abinda Allah ya ba da labari da shi a cikin littafinsa mai tsarki tare da abinda yake cikin littafan Hadisi ingantattu da sauran littafan magabata na gari.

Littafan Ahalus Sunna suna cike da bayanin girmamawar Abubakar da Umar, Allah ya yarda da su, ga Ali(RA), da ma sauran dangin Annabi Banu Hashim da Banul Muxxalib baki xaya, da yadda suka fifita shi, suka kwarzanta shi, suka sanya shi gaba da kowa a wajen martabawa da darajantawa. Kuma abu ne da ya tabbata a tarihi cewa Sarkin Musulmi Umar ya fifita Ahalul Baiti a tsarinsa na rabon ganima da dukiyar qasa ga al’umma. A lokacin da ya rattaba sunaye a Diwani don wannan manufa, ya gabatar da Banu Hashim, sa’an nan Banul Muxxalib. Ya gabatar da Abbas baffan Annabi, da Ali da Hassan da Hussaini, kuma ya ba su kaso sama da na kowa. Ya ma fifita Usama binu Zaid binu Harisa, wanda xa ne na bawan Annabi da ya ‘yanta, a bisa xansa na cikinsa, Abdullahi binu Umar. Wannan duka saboda girmamawa ga Annabi(SAW) da kiyaye haqqinsa.[8]

Haka nan Ahalus Sunna baki xayansu, tun daga zamanin Sahabbai har ya zuwa yau, babu mai qin Ali(RA), ko wani daga Alayen Annabi(SAW). Maimakon haka, dukkaninsu suna qaunar su, suna daraja su, kuma suna bautawa Allah da son su. Idan mai karatu yana buqatar hujja a kan wannan, sai ya duba yadda sunayen Ali da Faxima da Hassan da Hussaini suka bazu a cikin al’ummarmu, ina nufin Musulmin Nijeriya. Har ma ya zama al’ada a wajen mu inda duk aka haifi tagwaye maza to ba wata magana sunansu Hassan da Hussaini. Kamar yadda Hausawa suka qware wajen nau’anta sunan Faxima saboda yawansa. Su ce: Faxima, Fati, Binta, Batulu, Zahra ko Zahara’u, da sauransu. Babu wani suna da ya samu haka a tsakanin Musulmin Nijeriya Ahalus Sunna. Wannan kuma yana nuna qaryar ‘yan Shi’a, kuma ya isa ya sa su kunya in da suna da kunya.

Kuma kamar yadda sauran Sahabbai suke son Ahalul Baiti, haka su ma Ahalul Baiti suke son Sahabbai baki xayansu kuma suke girmama su, musamman dai khalifofi uku, watau Abubakar da Umar da Usman, da kuma uwayen muminai, matan Manzon Allah(SAW), Allah ya yarda da su baki xaya. Ya tabbata cikin littafan Ahalus Sunna cewa Ali da ‘ya’yansa Hassan da Hussaini, Allah ya yarda da su, suna matuqar nuna so da qauna da girmamawa ga Abubakar da Umar da Usman, kuma daga alamun soyayyarsu gare su duka sun sanya wa ‘ya’yansu sunayensu domin tunawa da su da riqo ga alqawarinsu. Ali da Hassan da Hussaini duka suna da ‘ya’ya masu suna Abubakar da Umar. Shi Ali ma har Umar biyu gare shi: Umar Qarami da Umar Babba. Kuma bayanin wannan ya zo a cikin littafan malaman Shi’a.[9] Babu shakka wannan shaida ce a kan qaunar shugabannin Ahalul Baiti ga Sahabbai; domin mutum ba ya sanya wa xansa suna sai wanda yake so, yake qauna.

Abinda muka ambata na qauna da soyayya da ban girma a tsakanin Sahabbai da Ahalul Baiti shi ne zance na gaskiya kamar yadda yake cikin littafan magabatan al’umma na gari, shigen Sahihul Bukhari da Sahihu Muslim da Kitabus Sunna na Abdullahi binu Ahmad binu Hanbal da Kitabus Sunna na Khallal da Kitabus Sunna na Ibnu Baxxata da Kitabus Sunna na Ajuri da Kitabus Sunna na Lalika’i da Kitabul Asma’i was Sifat na Baihaqi da Kitab Fada’ilis Sahabah na Imam Ahmad da Albidaya wal Nihaya na Ibnu Kathir da Minhajus Sunnah na Ibnu Taimiya, da gomomi da xaruruwan littafan Hadisi da Tafsiri da Sirah waxanda suke tabbatar da kyawawan halaye na Ahalul Baiti da Sahabbai, da rahama da jin qai da ban girma dake tsakaninsu wanda yake tabbatar da cewa lallai tabbas su almajiran Mafificin Annabawa ne, waxanda suka tsarkaka da koyarwarsa.

Babu shakka irin wannan kyakkyawar alaqa lallai ne ta haifar da taimakon juna a kan aikin qwarai da taqawa.

Taimakon Ali(RA) Ga Khalifofi Uku

Sayyidina Ali binu Abi Xalib, Allah ya qara masa yarda, ya taimaka ainun wajen tafiyar da al’amura a zamanin khalifancin Abubakar da Umar da Usman, Allah ya qara musu yarda. Babu wani muhimmin abu da aka zartar a wannan zamani ba tare da hannunsa da taimakonsa ba.

Ali(RA) ya kasance mamba ne na Majalisar Qoli a zamanin khalifofin uku kuma babban mai ba su shawara. A tsawon mulkin Umar da Usman, ya kasance shi ne mutum na biyu a daular Musulunci. Koda yake a zamanin Umar Usman yana gaba da Ali a matsayi, amma Ali ya fi shi kusanci ga khalifan saboda haxuwar jini ta musamman dake tsakanin mutanen biyu. Sayyidina Umar da Sayyidina Ali suna da wani kusanci da jituwa na musamman wata qila wasoda kamanni a xabi’arsu; domin dukkaninsu mutane ne masu tsanani da rashin wasa. Wannan alaqa ta qut-da-qut  ce ta sa Ali(RA) ya aura wa Umar ‘yarsa Ummu Kulthum xiyar Faxima.[10]

Sayyidina Ali a Zamanin Abubakar

A zamanin rayuwar Annabi(SAW), Sayyidina Ali ya kasance ana xora masa nauyin qaddamar da ayyuka masu wuya irin na qundunbala, kamar lokacin da Annabi ya umarce shi da ya kwanta a kan gadonsa a daren da ya yi hijira, da kuma lokacin da ya ba shi tuta a yaqin Tabuka.[11] Sayyidina Ali ya ci gaba da qaddamar da irin waxannan ayyuka na qundumbala a zamanin khalifa na farko, Abubakar Siddiq(RA), kasancewar zamanin Siddiqu xori ne kai tsaye a kan zamanin Annabi(SAW). Don haka za mu ga a farkon mulkin Abubakar, a lokacin da yawancin Larabawa suka yi ridda kuma Madina tana cikin tsoro da firgici, Abubakar ya kafa wata runduna ta musamman domin gadin hedukwatar Musulunci wacce ta qunshi zaratan mazaje irin su Xalha binu Ubaidillah da Zubairu binul Awwam da Sa’ad binu Abi Waqqas da Abdurrahman binu Auf da Abdullahi binu Mas’ud, da sauransu. Abubakar ya sanya jan ragamar wannan runduna a hannun Ali(RA).[12]

A tsawon zamanin Abubakar, wanda zamani ne da yake cike da garari da hatsaniya a saboda yaqoqin ridda da fitinu da suka biyo bayan rasuwar Annabi(SAW), Ali ya ci gaba da zama irin mutumin da Larabawa suke kira:                                    watau Gagara Badau, wanda ake nemo shi idan ta vaci. Kuma babu shakka tarbiyyar annabta ta taimaka wa Ali wajen riqe wannan kambi, kasancewarsa ya taso tun quruciyarsa a gidan Manzon Allah(SAW). Abubakar yana sane da wannan tsere-sa’a na Ali, saboda haka ya ajiye shi a hannun damansa; ba ya zartar da wani al’amari ba tare da shawartar sa ba.

Sayyidina Ali yana da matsayi babba a zukatan manyan Sahabbai kuma sun yarda da amanarsa da tsantseninsa. Wannan ya sa Majalisar Qoli ta Abubakar ta amince da Khalifan ya naxa shi mai rabon ganima da dukiyar qasa, watau Fai’i da Khumusi. Kuma Ali(RA) ya ci gaba da riqe wannan matsayi a tsawon zamanin Abubakar da Umar da Usman, sa’an nan daga bisani ya gadar da shi ga ‘ya’yansa Hassan da Hussaini.[13]

Ali binu Abi Xalib(RA) ya tsaya matsayi mai girma a zamanin Abubakar(RA) kuma ya gabatar da hidimomi manya-manya ga addininsa da al’ummarsa a qarqashin jagorancin Abubakar da shugabancinsa. Kuma Abubakar ya yaba wannan matsayi na Ali da hidimominsa, kamar yadda ya ba shi tukuici mai gwavi ta hanyar girmama shi da xaukaka shi da yi masa kyautuka masu yawa. Daga cikin irin waxannan kyautuka, Abubakar ya ba wa Ali kuyangi guda biyu: Sahaba’u wacce ta haifa masa Umar da Ruqayya da kuma Khaulatu Alhanafiyya wacce ta haifa masa xansa mafi shuhura bayan Hassan da Hussaini, watau Muhammad binul Hanafiyya.[14]

Sayyidina Ali a Zamanin Umar

A zamanin khilafar Umar(RA), Ali(RA) ya zama mutum na biyu a daular Musulunci wanda babu mai ja da shi. Koda yake ba su da matsayin Mataimakin Shugaba a wancan lokacin, amma Ali kusan wannan matsayin ne yake riqe da shi. Wannan kuwa ya zama haka saboda alaqarsu ta qut-da-qut da Umar, da haxuwar jini, da kusanci wanda suka samu a  sakamakon kamannin xabi’arsu, kamar yadda muka ambata a baya.

Ali(RA) shi ne babban mai ba da shawara kuma mutum na xaya a Majalisar Qoli ta Umar.[15] Sarkin Musulmi Umar ya gamsu ainun da ilmin Ali da hikimarsa da qwarewarsa a wajen sha’anin mulki da alqalanci. Wannan ya sa yake shawartar sa a cikin muhimman al’amura na daula da mulki, kamar yadda ya nemi ra’ayinsa a lokacin da Musulmi suka ci Qudus da yaqi, da lokacin da suka kame Mada’in (babban birnin qasar Farisa), da lokacin da Khalifan ya so fita da kansa zuwa yaqin Romawa, da lokacin da zai fara aiki da kalandar Hijira, da sauransu.[16] Saboda tsananin amintarsa da shi, Umar bai tava shawartar Ali ba a kan wani al’amari face ya yi riqo da ra’ayinsa, ya zartar da shawararsa.[17]

Wani abu da yake qara nuna mana matsayin Ali(RA) a wajen Umar(RA) da amincewar da Khalifan ya yi masa, shi ne naxa shi da ya yi a matsayin Shugaban Riqo a lokacin da ya tafi zuwa birnin Qudus, wacce ita ce tafiya mafi nisa kuma mafi muhimmanci da Umar ya yi a tsawon khalifancinsa.[18]

Sayyidina Ali a Zamanin Usman

A zamanin Sarkin Musulmi Usman, Ali(RA) ya ci gaba da zama Musulmi na gari, amintacce, mai hidima da nasiha ga al’ummarsa. Ya zama qusa ne shi a gwamnatin Usman, xan Majalisar Qoli, wanda ba’a zartar da wani al’amari sai da hannunsa da sanya albarkarsa.

Ali binu Abi Xalib, Allah ya qara masa yarda, shi ne mutum na farko da ya yi mubaya’a ga Usman(RA) bayan Abdurrahman binu Auf, wanda shi ne ya shugabanci kwamatin shura da ya zavi Usman.[19] Bayan nan, ya ci gaba da zama na hannun daman Usman, wanda Khalifan yake dogara da shi wajen warware al’amura masu saqqarqiya.

A zamanin Usman(RA), daular Musulunci ta yi faxi ainun kuma al’ummai dabam-daban sun shigo ta. Mulkin Musulunci a qabas ya kai qasar Sin, a yamma ya game arewacin Afrika ya dangana da tekun Atalantika, a arewa kuwa Musulmi suna qwanqwasa qofofin Faransa da Usturaliya a Turai. Wannan ya sa mulkin daular da juya al’amuranta suka qara tsanani, kuma Khalifa Usman ya bukaci taimakon mazaje masu amana da qwarewa da gogewa don cika aikinsa. Ali(RA) ya kasance a sahun gaba na waxannan mazaje.

Koda yake Sayyidina Ali a yanzu ya fara manyanta, amma ga alama sifarsa ta Gagara Badau har yanzu ba ta rabu da shi ba. Don haka, a lokacin da fitina ta kunno kai, a wajejen qarshen mulkin Usman, kuma ‘yan tawaye suka mamaye Madina, Usman ya zavo Ali domin ya jagoranci wata tawaga wacce ta tattauna da ‘yan tawayen kuma ta gamsar da su, suka miqa wuya. Ruwayoyi sun ambata cewa, yayin da ‘yan tawayen suka ga Ali, kwarjininsa ya cika zukatansu, suka ce: Xan Baffan Ma’aiki, ya zo a matsayin xan aiken Sarkin Musulmi! Take guiwarsu ta yi sanyi.[20]

A lokacin da al’amura suka cuxe, bayan komowar ‘yan tawaye da mamayewarsu ga gidan Khalifa, Sayyidina Ali, wanda kamar yadda muka gabatar a yanzu ya manyanta, ya tura ‘ya’yansa samari, Hassan da Hussaini, domin tsaron Usman da ba shi kariya. Waxannan ‘ya’ya masu albarka sun amsa umarnin ubansu, kuma sun kare Sarkin Musulmi Usman da makamansu har aka yi wa Hassan mummunan rauni.[21]

Lokacin da Usman ya gamu da ajalinsa a hannun ‘yan tawaye, Ali(RA) ya yi baqin ciki matuqa kuma ya yi fushi mai tsanani. Da ‘ya’yansa suka kai masa labarin, ya daka musu tsawa, ya ce: Ya za’a kashe Usman alhali kuna qofar gidansa? Ya shara wa Hassan mari duk da cewa an yi masa rauni, amma raunin bai zama uzuri ba gare shi a wajen babansa.[22]

Wannan ita ce rayuwar Sayyidina Ali, Allah ya qara masa yarda, tare da ‘yan uwansa khalifofi uku, Abubakar da Umar da Usman, Allah ya qara yarda a gare su. Rayuwa ce ta haxin kai da haxa qarfi domin ciyar da addini gaba. Alaqar da ta kasance tsakanin waxannan zavavvun bayin Allah alaqa ce ta taimakon juna a kan aikin alheri da taqawa. Kuma irin wannan alaqa ita ce ta dace da su a matsayinsu na almajiran Fiyayyen Halitta, Cikamakin Annabawa, wanda suka tarbiyyantu a hannunsa, suka tsarkaka da koyarwarsa da rainonsa. Babu wanda zai yi musu zaton savanin haka, daga jahili sai ko munafuki zindiqi mai zagon qasa ga Musulunci.

Hassan da Hussaini a Zamanin Abubakar da Umar

Zamanin Abubakar da Umar ana iya cewa lokacin quruciya ne ga Sayyidina Hassan da Sayyidina Hussaini, Allah ya qara musu yarda, domin har Abubakar ya rasu Hassan bai wuce shekara goma ba a duniya, Hussaini kuwa iyakacinsa takwas. Sai a wajejen qarshen zamanin Umar ne yaran biyu masu albarka suka isa munzilin balaga. Yara masu irin waxannan shekaru, koda yake suna da xaukakar daraja, ba safai suke ba da wata gudunmawa ta ku-zo-ku-gani ba a rayuwar al’umma. Don haka ana iya cewa, tasirin Hassan da Hussaini a wannan zamani taqaitacce ne ainun. Sai dai lallai ne ya zama yaran sun koyi abubuwa masu yawa a wannan lokaci, kuma daga cikin waxanda za su koya daga gare su babu shakka akwai Abubakar da Umar. Abinda muke nufi a nan, zamanin Abubakar da Umar, Allah ya qara musu yarda, yawanci lokacin tasirantuwa ne ga Hassan da Hussaini, ba lokacin tasiri ba.

Shekarun Hassan da Hussaini a zamanin Abubakar da Umar shekaru ne da mai su yake koyo, ya taskance abubuwan da ya koya a qwaqwalwarsa. Kuma ko ba’a faxi ba, gaurayar waxannan yara da waxannan shugabanni biyu tana da yawa a matakai dabam-daban, musamman a matakin iyali. Abubakar da Umar duka suna da ‘ya’ya, watau A’isha da Hafsa, da suke aure a gidan kakan Hassan da Hussaini, watau gidan Annabi(SAW). Bugu da qari, qanuwarsu, watau Ummu Kulthum xiyar Faxima, tana auren Umar(RA). Saboda haka, dole a samu gauraya ta kusa-da-kusa a tsakanin waxannan iyalai.

Bayan wannan duka, Abubakar da Umar shugabanni ne waxanda Hassan da Hussaini za su riqa ganin su a masallaci, kuma ambatonsu zai yi yawa saboda muqaminsu. Kuma da yake Ali shi ma shugaba ne wanda ake damawa da shi, duka wannan zai taimaka wajen tasirantuwar Hassan da Hussaini da khalifofin biyu.

Wani abu da bai kamata a wuce ba tare da an ambace shi ba, shi ne kulawa ta musamman da Abubakar da Umar suka ba wa Hassan da Hussaini, duk da qarancin shekarunsu, saboda kusancinsu da Annabi(SAW) da kuma matuqar qauna da soyayya da aka san yana nuna musu a lokacin rayuwarsa. Imam Bukhari ya ruwaito cewa, wata ran Abubakar da Ali sun fito daga masallaci bayan sallar La’asar sai ga Hassan yana wasa da yara. Sai Abubakar ya xauke shi a wuyansa, yana rera wannan waqa:

ﺑﺄﺑﯽ ﺷﺑﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻠﻨﺑﯽ   ﻟﻴﺱ ﺸﺑﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻠﯽ

Ali ya saurara, yana dariya.[23] Har yau, Ibnu Hajar ya ruwaito cewa, Umar ya gamu da Hussaini sai ya ce da shi, “Ya kai xana, don me ba ka zuwa mu riqa gaisawa, muna ganin ka?” Bayan kwana biyu, sai ya sake gamuwa da shi. Ya ce, “Xana! Ban gan ka ba.” Sai Hussaini ya ce, “Na je kuna ganawa da Mu’awiyya. Na tarar da Abdullahi binu Umar yana jira, ba’a yi masa izini ya shiga ba. Sai na komo.”  Umar ya ce, “Kai ka fi Abdullahi binu Umar cancanta da a yi maka izini!”[24]

Waxannan qissoshi da masu kama da su, suna nuna yanayin rayuwar Hassan da Hussaini a zamanin khalifofi biyu, Abubakar da Umar, Allah ya qara musu yarda. A zamanin Abubakar koyo ne da wasa irin na yara, a zamanin Umar kuwa koyo da ladabi irin na matasa waxanda suka taso cikin tarbiyya mai kyau.

Hassan da Hussaini a Zamanin Usman

Usman(RA) ya zama khalifa Hassan yana xan shekara ishirin, Hussaini yana da sha takwas, kuma ya rasu Hassan yana xan shekara talatin da biyu, Hussaini yana da talatin. Wannan yana nufin a zamanin Usman ne Hassan da Hussaini, Allah ya qara musu yarda, suka kawo qarfi, koda yake ko a wannan lokacin ba su isa shekarun nuna na arba’in ba.

A zamanin khalifofi, abinda samari majiya qarfi irin su Hassan da Hussaini suka fi mayar da hankali a kansa shi ne ilmi da ibada da jihadi. Waxannan abubuwa babu shakka sun xauki kaso mai tsoka na lokacin shugabannin samarin aljanna, watau Hassan da Hussaini. Lokacin da Usman(RA) ya xaga tutar jihadi, domin ci gaba da aikin da ya gada daga Umar(RA), matasan Sahabbai da kuma samari daga cikin ‘ya’yan Sahabbai Muhajiruna da Ansar sun yi rigegeniya wajen fita zuwa yaqin jihadi. Ga misali, a yaqin Xabrista, wanda ya faru a shekara ta 30 bayah Hijira, Hassan da Hussaini sun fita tare da matasan Sahabbai irin su Abdullahi binu Abbas da Abdullahi binu Umar da Abdullahi binu Amru binul Aas da Abdullahi binu Zubair. Wannan runduna wacce ta motsa daga birnin Kufa, qarqashin jagorancin Sa’id binul Aas, ta keta ta garuruwan Qumis da Xamisa, inda ta gwabza qazamin faxa da rundunar kafirai wanda saboda qazantar yaqin sai da Musulmi suka bukatu ya zuwa yin sallar tsoro. A wannan yaqi, Hassan da Hussaini sun nuna bajinta irin wacce ta dace da su a matsayinsu na jikokin Annabi(SAW) kuma ‘ya’yan Jarmai Ali.[25]

Haka nan a yaqin Ifriqiyya, lokacin da Usman(RA) ya aike runduna qarqashin jagorancin Abdullahi binu Sa’ad(RA), Hassan da Hussaini sun fita cikin wannan runduna tare da Abu Zarrin Algifari da Abdullahi binu Ja’afar da Abdullahi binu Umar da Abdullahi binu Abbas da wasu masu yawa. Rundunar ta tashi daga Madina, ta ratsa ta Masar, daga nan ta kutsa cikin Afrika inda ta gwabza faxa da dakarun Roma a fagen fama dabam-daban har Allah ya tabbar da nasara ga Musulmi, yayin da suka tsarkake waxannan qasahse daga mulkin mallaka na daular Romawa. A wannan yaqin ma, Hassan da Hussaini, Allah ya qara musu yarda, sun qaddamar da ayyukan bajinta da jarunta waxanda a yau tarihi yake tuna su da su.[26]

Waxannan ‘yan misalai ne kaxan na irin taimakon da Hassan da Hussaini suka gabatar a zamanin khalifofi, musamman Khalifa Usman(RA), don xaukaka addinin Musulunci da tabbatar da durakun daularsa. Kuma babu shakka wannan yana tabbatar da taimakekeniya da ta kasance tsakanin shugabannin Sahabbai, watau Abubakar da Umar da Usman, da kuma shugabannin Ahalul Baiti, watau Ali da Hassan da Hussaini, Allah ya qara musu yarda baki xaya.

Rufewa

A cikin ‘yan warqoqin da suka gabata, mun ga misali mai kyawu na haxin kai da qauna da soyayya da ban girma tsakanin Sahabban Annabi(SAW) da iyalin gidansa Ahalul Baiti, Allah ya qara musu yarda. Kuma wannan kyakkyawar alaqa da ta wanzu tsakaninsu ta samu ne sakamakon tarbiyyar Annabi(SAW) da ‘yan uwantakar Musulunci. Kuma mun yi tsokaci dangane da wasu masu mummunar manufa waxanda suke qoqari wajen vata sunan magabatan wannan al’umma da sukan tarihinsu. Babu shakka sukan xaya daga cikin magabata, sawa’un daga Sahabbai ko daga Ahalul Baiti, suka ne ga Annabi(SAW) da Musulunci baki xaya. Wannan kuwa maqarqashiya ce ga addini wanda ya kamata a kiyaye, kada a ba ta dammar yaxuwa.

A qarshe, muna rufe wannan taqaitacciyar maqala da faxin Allah Maxaukaki, “(Yabo ya tabbata) Ga matalauta masu hijira waxanda aka fitar daga gidajensu da dukiyoyinsu, suna neman falala daga Allah da kuma yarda, kuma suna taimakon Allah da Manzonsa! Waxannan su ne masu gaskiya. Da waxanda suka zaunar da gidajensu (ga  Musulunci) kuma (suka zavi) imani, a gabannin zuwansu, suna son wanda ya yi hijira zuwa gare su, kuma ba su tunanin wata bukata a cikin qirazansu daga abinda aka bai wa muhajirina, kuma suna fifita waxansu a kan kawunansu, kuma ko da suna da wata larura. Wanda ya sava wa rowar ransa, to, waxannan su ne masu babban rabo. Kuma waxanda suka zo daga bayansu, suna cewa, ‘Ya Ubangijinmu! Ka yi gafara a gare mu, kuma ga ‘yan uwanmu, waxanda suka riga mu yin imani, kada ka sanya wani qulli a cikin zukatanmu ga waxanda suka yi imani. Ya Ubangijinmu! Lalle kai ne mai tausayi, mai jin qai.’”(Suratul Hashri: 8-10)

Wadannan ayoyi guda uku masu albarka sun raba al’umma aji uku: Na farko ajin Muhajiruna waxanda suka yi hijira don neman falalar Allah da yardar sa. Aji na biyu, Ansar waxanda suka karvi baquncin masu hijira suka fifita su a kan kawunan su. Waxannan ajujuwa biyu sun wuce; kuma ba’a kamo ko qurarsu! Ajin da ya rage shi ne na ‘yan baya masu qaunar waxancan da suka wuce kuma suna yi musu addu’a. Wanda duk bai shiga cikin wannan aji ba, to jirgi ya bar shi a tasha!

Muna rokon Allah ya sanya mu daga cikin masu qaunar magabata, suna roqa musu gafara. Ya Allah! Kada ka sanya qulli a zukatanmu ga waxanda suka yi imani. Allahumma amin.

[1] A duba littafin babban malaminsu, Muhammad binu Ya’aqub Kulaini, Usulul Alkafi, bugun Darul Kutubil Islamiyya, Tehran, Iran, ba tarihi, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 227.

[2] Muhammad binu Muhammad binu Nu’uman Almufid, Awa’ilul Maqalat, bugun Darul Kitabil Islami, Bairut, ba tarihi, shafi na 45. Har yau, a duba Al’anwarun Nu’umaniyya na Ni’imatullahi Aljaza’iri, bugun Madba’atu Jaba, Tabriz, Iran, ba tarihi, mujalladi na 2, shafi na 244. 

[3] Muhammad binu Ya’aqub Kulaini, Usulul Kafi, tushen da ya gabata, mujalladi na 2 shafi na 141.

[4] Duba littafinmu, Wa Ya Kashe Hussaini? bugun Zomo Press, Kaduna, 2010.

[5] Sharif Alradi, Nahajul Balaga, bugun Madba’atu As’ad, Bagdad, ba tarihi, mujalladi na 2 shafi na 184.

[6] Sharif Alradi, tushen da ya gabata, mujalladi na  1 shafi na 20.

[7] Abul Hassan Ali binu Isa Al’arbali, Kashful Gumma fi Ma’arifatil A’imma, bugun Maktabatu Bani Hashim, Tabriz, Iran, 1381, mujalladi na 1 shafi na 343.

[8] Domin bayani a kan haka, sai a duba Minhajus Sunnah na Ibnu Taimiya, bugun Darul Kutubil Ilmiyya, Bairut, ba tarihi, mujalladi na 3 shafi na 172-173 da littafan Sira.

[9] Mai son karin bayani sai ya duba littafinmu, Dangantaka Da Auratayya Tsakanin Ahalul Baiti Da Sahabbai, bugun Zomo Press, Kaduna, 2010.

[10] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminina Umar binul Khaddabi, bugun Darul Ma’arifa, Bairut, 1431/2010, shafi na 129.

[11] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Assiratun Nabawiyyah: Ardu Waqa’i wa Tahlilu Ahdath, bugun Darul Ma’arifa, Bairut, 1431/2010, shafi na 268 da 699.

[12] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Alkhalifatul Awwal: Abubakar Siddiq, bugun Darul Ma’arifa, Bairut, 1430/2009, shafi na 176.

[13] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminin Khamisil Khulafa’ir Rashidin: Alhassan binu Ali, bugun Darul Ma’arifa, Bairut, 1430/2009, shafi na 89.

[14] Ali Sallabi, Alhassan binu Ali, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 89.

[15] Ali Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminina Umar binul Khaddabi, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 129. Kuma a duba, Alhassan binu Ali, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 101.

[16] Ali Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminina Umar binul Khaddabi, shafi na 129-130. Kuma a duba, Alhassan binu Ali, shafi na 101-102.

[17] Ali Sallabi, Alhassan binu Ali, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 102.

[18] Ali Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminina Umar binul Khaddabi, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 469.

[19] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminina Usman binu Affan, bugun Darul Ma’arifa, Bairut, 1430/2009, shafi na 81.

[20] Ali Sallabi, Siratu Amril Muminina Usman binu Affan, shafi na 386-387.

[21] Siratu Amiril Muminina Usman binu Affan, shafi na 398. Kuma a duba, Alhassan binu Ali, shafi na 121.

[22] Ali Sallabi, Alhassan binu Ali, shafi na 122.

[23] Abu Abdillah, Muhammad binu Isma’il Albukhari, Sahihul Bukhari, bugun Darul Fikir, Bairut, 1411/1991, mujalladi na 5, shafi na 93.

[24] Ahmad binu Ali binu Hajar, Al’isabah fi Tamyiz Alsahabah, bugun Darul Kutubil Ilmiyya, Bairut, 1415/1995, mujalladi na 1, shafi na 133.

[25] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Siratu Amiril Muminina Usman binu Affan, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 172.

[26] Ali Muhammad Sallabi, Siratu Usman, tushen da ya gabata, shafi na 204-211.